Grifoni A, Mahajan S, Sidney J, Martini S, Scheuermann RH, Peters B, Sette A. Hum Immunol. 2019 Nov;80(11):923-929. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2019.08.004. Epub 2019 Aug 23. A survey of known immune epitopes in the enteroviruses strains associated with acute flaccid myelitis. PMID: 31451291 PMCID: PMC6876747 [Available on 2020-11-01] DOI: 10.1016/j.humimm.2019.08.004
Enteroviruses are potentially linked to the emergence of Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM), a rare but very serious condition that affects the nervous system. AFM has been associated with coxsackievirus A16, enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and enterovirus D68 (EVD68). Little is known about host-pathogen interactions for these viruses, and whether immune responses may have a protective or immunopathological role in disease presentations. Towards addressing this issue, we used the Immune Epitope Database to assess the known inventory of B and T cell epitopes from enteroviruses, focusing on data related to human hosts. The extent of conservation in areas that are targets of B and T cell immune responses were examined. This analysis sheds light on regions of the enterovirus polypeptide that can be probed to induce a specific or cross-reactive B or T cell the immune response to enteroviruses, with a particular focus on coxsackievirus A16, EVA71 and EVD68. In addition, these analyses reveal the current gap-of-knowledge in the T and B cell immune responses that future studies should aim to address.